O(N^3) Measurement Cost for Variational Quantum Eigensolver on Molecular Hamiltonians

Variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) is a promising algorithm for near-term quantum machines. It can be used to estimate the ground state energy of a molecule by performing separate measurements of O(N 4 ) terms. This quartic scaling appears to be a significant obstacle to practical applications. However, we note that it empirically reduces to O(N 3 ) when we […]

Coding Analog of Superadditivity Using Entanglement-Assisted Quantum Tensor Product Codes Over Fpk

We provide a procedure to construct entanglement-assisted Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes over qudits from the parity check matrices of two classical codes over F q , where q = p k , p is prime, and k is a positive integer. The construction procedure involves the proposed Euclidean Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization algorithm, followed by a procedure to extend the quantum operators […]

Enhancing a Near-Term Quantum Accelerator’s Instruction Set Architecture for Materials Science Applications

Quantum computers with tens to hundreds of noisy qubits are being developed today. To be useful for real-world applications, we believe that these near-term systems cannot simply be scaled-down non-error-corrected versions of future fault-tolerant large-scale quantum computers. These near-term systems require specific architecture and design attributes to realize their full potential. To efficiently execute an […]

Fault-Tolerant Resource Estimation of Quantum Random-Access Memories

Abstract: Quantum random-access lookup of a string of classical bits is a necessary ingredient in several important quantum algorithms. In some cases, the cost of such quantum random-access memory (qRAM) is the limiting factor in the implementation of the algorithm. In this article, we study the cost of fault-tolerantly implementing a qRAM. We construct and […]

Reducing the Cost of Implementing the Advanced Encryption Standard as a Quantum Circuit

Abstract: To quantify security levels in a postquantum scenario, it is common to use the quantum resources needed to attack the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) as a reference value. Specifically, in the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s ongoing postquantum standardization effort, different security categories are defined that reflect the quantum resources needed to attack […]